Amazon Malaria Initiative

AMI Countries

The Amazon sub region was selected for AMI support in 2001 because it was where 88% of Latin America’s reported malaria cases originated, and where medicines used for treating P. falciparum malaria were becoming inefficacious. Through AMI, USAID now collaborates with a network of National Malaria Control Programs in the Amazon Basin and Central America to address issues of common interest regarding malaria surveillance, prevention and control. AMI activities respond to each country, as well as to regional needs. The countries supported by AMI in the Amazon region include Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, and Suriname. In Central America, the participating countries are Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama. Initially, AMI also included Bolivia and Venezuela. Venezuela ceased participation at the end of 2007, and Bolivia ceased participation in 2013. Other countries that do not receive direct technical or financial support participate in meetings as observers.

MapSouthCentralAmerica Former AMI Country AMI Country Observer Country
MapSouthCentralAmerica
  • BACKGROUND
  • Belize
  • Bolivia
  • Brazil
  • Colombia
  • Ecuador
  • French Guiana (France)
  • Guatemala
  • Guyana
  • Honduras
  • Nicaragua
  • Panama
  • Peru
  • Suriname
  • Venezuela

The Amazon sub region was selected for AMI support in 2001 because it was where 88% of Latin America’s reported malaria cases originated, and where medicines used for treating P. falciparum malaria were becoming inefficacious. Through AMI, USAID now collaborates with a network of National Malaria Control Programs in the Amazon Basin and Central America to address issues of common interest regarding malaria surveillance, prevention and control. AMI activities respond to each country, as well as to regional needs. The countries supported by AMI in the Amazon region include Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, and Suriname. In Central America, the participating countries are Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama. Initially, AMI also included Bolivia and Venezuela. Venezuela ceased participation at the end of 2007, and Bolivia ceased participation in 2013. Other countries that do not receive direct technical or financial support participate in meetings as observers.

Belize has significantly reduced the size of the population at risk for malaria. From 2000–2013, the country’s total malaria cases decreased by 95%. Only 26 total malaria cases were reported in 2013, all of which were investigated. Belize’s Ministry of Health

Bolivia participated in AMI from 2001-2013. Bolivia’s Ministry of Health

In 2014, Brazil recorded the lowest number of malaria cases in the last 35 years (143,250 cases). The Ministry of Health launched a Malaria Elimination Plan in 2015. Brazil’s Ministry of Health

Colombia is encouraging its citizens to seek more immediate treatment for malaria symptoms throughout outreach activities. Studies carried out in Tierra Alta, Córdoba, in 2004; in Guapi, Cauca, in 2004; and in Apartadó, Antioquia, in 2005 revealed a low level of adherence to courses of treatment for uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum, and that approximately 48 percent of the interviewed people suffering from malaria do not realize that treatment is free at public health centers. Colombia’s Ministry of Health and Social Protection

Ecuador is currently addressing issues with patient adherence to drug protocols, a problem identified by AMI studies conducted by MSH/SPS. Ecuador’s Ministry of Public Health

French Guiana (France) participates as an observer in AMI Steering Committee meetings. French Guiana’s Regional Health Agency (ARS)

Guyana has been faced with growing infestations of P. falciparum, despite an aggressive program of distributing bed nets. This situation is complicated by the growth of mining activity along the Brazilian border, where malaria is prevalent. The Ministry of Health is struggling to convince citizens to seek treatment at regional health facilities rather than self-medicating using questionable commercially available medications. Nevertheless, malarial infections in Guyana have declined over the past decade. Guyana’s Ministry of Health

Honduras was able to decrease confirmed cases of malaria from over 7,500 in 2011 to over 5,500 in 2013. Honduras’s new National Malaria Strategic Plan began in 2014 and continues through 2017. Honduras’ Health Secretariat

From 2011–2013, Nicaragua’s confirmed cases of malaria increased, along with the total population at risk of malaria. Nicaragua’s Ministry of Health

Panama information is pending. Ministry of Health of the Republic of Panama

The number of cases in Peru has risen since 2011, after a 61% decrease from 2001-2010. Efforts against malaria focus on the Loreto Region, which accounts for nearly 95% of all cases. Peru’s Ministry of Health

Suriname has achieved a 93% reduction in malaria incidence since 2000. Current efforts towards elimination focus on interior areas of the country where indigenous populations live, and on gold mining areas. According to national malaria guidelines, Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) are used in gold mining and other remote areas. All positive cases resulting from RDTs are followed up with microscopic diagnosis. However, access to diagnosis remains a logistical challenge. Suriname’s Ministry of Public Health.

Venezuela participated in AMI from 2001-2007. Venezuela’s Ministry of Health

Stories from the Field
Strengthening prevention and control of malaria in Chocó, 2006 – 2009
blood

A microscopist takes a blood sample for malaria testing in Chocó, Colombia, 2009.

Piura Works to Improve Medicine Storage Conditions
warehouse

After the provision of technical support, the loading and unloading areas of the warehouse were protected from the weather and climate with a roof.

Collaborations between official medicines control laboratories
members of OMCL in photo together in front of building

OMCL representatives attended in September 2009 a sub-regional workshop organized by PQM and PAHO to discuss sustainable approaches for strengthening OMCLs at national and regional levels.

Clean, cool and collected: Better storage conditions for antimalarials in Ecuador
Clean, cool and collected: Better storage conditions for antimalarials in Ecuador

Storage of medicines and supplies before and after the intervention

Rethinking pharmaceutical management in low incidence settings
Clean, cool and collected: Better storage conditions for antimalarials in Ecuador

AMI partners, led by MSH, met in April 2010 to address medicine procurement in low incidence settings.

Last updated on: 9/28/2016